# Market Capitalization

The entire dollar market value of a company’s outstanding shares of stock is referred to as market capitalization. It is commonly referred to as “market cap,” and it is derived by multiplying the total number of outstanding shares of a firm by the current market price of one share.

A business with 10 million shares selling for \$100 apiece, for example, would have a market valuation of \$1 billion. This metric, rather than revenue or total assets, is used by the financial community to determine a company’s size. The market cap is used in acquisitions to analyse if a takeover candidate provides a fair value to the acquirer.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

• Market capitalization refers to how much a firm is worth as judged by the stock market. It is defined as the total market value of all outstanding shares.
• To determine a company’s market cap, multiply the number of outstanding shares by the current market value of one share.
• Large-cap companies have a market value of \$10 billion or more, mid-cap companies have a market capitalization of \$2 billion to \$10 billion, and small-cap companies have a market capitalization of \$300 million to \$2 billion.

## Understanding Market Capitalization

Understanding the worth of a firm is a critical activity that is sometimes difficult to perform quickly and effectively. Market capitalization is a quick and simple way for calculating a company’s value by extrapolating what the market believes it is worth for publicly listed firms.

The use of market capitalization to illustrate a business’s size is significant since firm size is a basic indicator of numerous qualities of importance to investors, including risk. It is also simple to compute. A business with 20 million shares that sell for \$100 each has a market capitalization of \$2 billion. A second business with a \$1,000 share price but only 10,000 shares outstanding would have a market valuation of \$10 million.

An initial public offering (IPO) is the first step in determining a company’s market capitalization (IPO). Before an IPO, a business that seeks to go public hires an investment bank to use valuation methodologies to assess a firm’s value and how many shares will be issued to the public at what price. For example, if a company’s IPO valuation is established at \$100 million by an investment bank, it may elect to issue 10 million shares at \$10 per share, or 20 million at \$5 per share. In either case, the initial market capitalization would be \$100 million.

After a firm goes public and begins trading on the exchange, the price of its shares in the market is decided by supply and demand. If its shares are in strong demand owing to positive conditions, the price will rise. If the company’s future growth prospects do not appear promising, sellers of the stock may push down its price. The market capitalization thus serves as a real-time indication of the company’s value.

The market capitalization formula is as follows:

• Market capitalization = share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding

## Market Capitalization and Investment Strategy

Because of its simplicity and efficacy in risk assessment, market capitalization may be a useful statistic in deciding which stocks to invest in and how to diversify your portfolio with firms of various sizes. Large-cap (sometimes known as big-cap) enterprises have a market capitalization of \$10 billion or more. These businesses have often been in existence for a long time and are key participants in well-established sectors.

Investing in large-cap firms may not produce substantial returns in a short period of time, but in the long run, these companies often reward investors with a constant growth in share value and dividend payments. Apple Inc., Microsoft Corp., and Alphabet Inc., the parent company of Google, are examples of large-cap companies. Keep in mind that this is an ever-changing sample.

Mid-cap corporations typically have market capitalizations ranging from \$2 billion to \$10 billion. Mid-cap corporations are well-established businesses that participate in a sector that is predicted to develop rapidly. Mid-cap corporations are growing in size. They are more risky than large-cap firms since they are less established, but they are appealing because of their growth potential. Eagle Materials Inc. is an example of a mid-cap firm (EXP). 3

Enterprises with a market valuation of \$300 million to \$2 billion are categorized as small-cap companies. These tiny businesses may be younger, and/or they may serve specialized markets or emerging sectors. Because of their age, the markets they service, and their scale, these firms are considered higher-risk investments. 4 Smaller businesses with less resources are more vulnerable to economic downturns.

As a result, small-cap stock prices are more volatile and less liquid than those of bigger, more established corporations. At the same time, small businesses frequently provide more prospects for growth than giant corporations. Even smaller corporations, with market capitalizations ranging from \$50 million to \$300 million, are referred to as micro-caps.

Important Notice: You may need to consider the market cap of various stocks while making an investing choice.

Although it is frequently used to characterize a firm, market capitalization does not measure a company’s equity worth. Only a detailed examination of a company’s basics can do this.

It is insufficient to value a company since the market price on which it is based does not always reflect the value of a component of the firm. The market frequently over- or undervalues shares, which means that the market price simply defines how much the market is ready to pay for its shares.

The market cap, although measuring the cost of purchasing all of a business’s shares, does not establish how much the firm would cost to acquire in a merger transaction. The enterprise value is a better approach of determining the cost of buying a corporation entirely.

## Market Capitalization Variations

Significant fluctuations in the price of a stock or when a corporation issues or repurchases shares are two major reasons that might affect a company’s market value. An investor that exercises a high number of warrants can potentially increase the number of shares on the market, which can be detrimental to shareholders through a process known as dilution.

## What Exactly Is Market Capitalization?

The market value of a company’s stock is referred to as its market capitalization. It is a basic but crucial metric that is computed by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the price per share of a firm. A corporation with a market value of \$2 billion, for example, would be priced at \$20 per share and have 100 million shares outstanding.

## Is a High Market Capitalization Beneficial?

Having a huge market capitalization has both advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, larger corporations may be able to obtain better financing arrangements from banks and sell corporate bonds. Furthermore, because to their size, these businesses may benefit from competitive advantages such as economies of scale or extensive brand awareness.

Large organizations, on the other hand, may have limited options for continuing expansion and, as a result, may see their growth rates fall over time.

## What Is the Distinction Between Market Cap and Enterprise Value?

The primary distinction between market capitalization and enterprise value is that market capitalization solely reflects the value of a company’s stock, whereas enterprise value indicates the total amount of capital invested in the firm, including debt.

Enterprise value is computed by taking the company’s market capitalization, plus all of its loans, and deducting its cash. Many investors use enterprise value as an approximate estimate of the cost of acquiring and taking a business private. It’s also utilised in valuation formulas like the enterprise multiple.

## In conclusion

Market capitalization may be a useful tool for an investor who is studying stocks and weighing possible investments. For publicly listed firms, market capitalization is a quick and simple approach for assessing a company’s value by extrapolating what the market believes it is worth. Rather than utilising revenue or total asset data, the investing community utilises this metric to estimate a company’s size. The market cap is used in acquisitions to analyse if a takeover candidate provides a fair value to the acquirer.